Unit 1: Parts of Speech

1. Nouns: is a word or a group of words that is ued to name a person, place, thing, or idea.

Alice Walker, Dr. Lacy, women, team
forest, town, Canada, Grand Rapids
jewelry, rain, pets, Skylab, Eiffel Tower
fairness, care, loyalty, idealism, beauty

6 Types

Compound--word made up of two or more words working as a single noun.
  • one word--basketball, filmmaker, drugstore, doghouse, grasshopper, Iceland
  • separate words--fire drill, chain reaction, Thomas A. Edison, North Americans
  • hypenated words--self-control, eighteen-year-olds, out-of-doors

Common--word that names any person, place, thing, or idea.
Proper--word that names a particular person, places, things, or ideas.

"The Raven"
Joe Montana
"The New York Times
University Avenue
Girl Scouts of America

Concrete--names a person, place, thing, or idea that can be perceived by one or more of the senses.
Abstract--names an idea, a feeling, or a quality.

hummingbird, telephone, teacher, popcorn, ocean, Golden Gate Bridege, Jesse Jackson
knowledge, patriotism, love, humor, self-confidence, beauty, competition

Collective--word that names a group

audience, chorus, committee, crew, faculty, family, brood, flock, herd, litter, pack, pride, batch, bundle, cluster, collection, fleet, set
2. Pronouns-word that replaces a noun or another pronoun in a sentence.
Antecedent-the word in the sentence that the pronoun replaces.

7 Types
1. Personal Pronoun--most used

I, me, my, mine
we, us, our, ours
you, your, yours
you, your, yours
he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its
they, them, their, theirs

Katie told her father the story she heard at school.
Her and she are the pronouns of the sentence, and Katie is the antecedent, the word being replaced.
Ex. I want to listen to the music he brought me.

I, he, and me are the pronouns of the sentence. There is no antecedent.
Ex. Tim and Joe told his mother that they wanted pizza for dinner.

Pronoun Antecedent Agreement

2. Reflexive--use the personal pronouns. add -self or -selves (leave in the sentence) 1. complete 2. have the same meaning.
3. Intensive--use the personal pronouns. add -self or -selves (take out of the sentence)


Ex. The rescuers considered themselves heroes.
-Pronoun is reflexive because it must stay in the sentence in order for the sentence to be complete.

Ex. Amy designed the clothes herself.
-Pronoun is intensive because it is an unnecessary word in the sentence.

Ex. Juan wrote himself a note.
-Pronoun is reflexive. Although the sentence is complete without the pronoun, part of the meaning is lost if the pronoun is removed.

3. Verbs

A verb is a word or group of words that shows the state of being or action being done by the subject.

3 Types:

1. Action
2. Linking
3. Helping

Action Verb: a word or group of words that show a mental of physical action.

ex. Tyler ran to the store to get groceries.

ex. Sam knew she would win the student council election.

Linking Verb: a word or group of words that join the predicate to the subject by describing or renaming.

ex. Todd is the captain of the football team this school year.

ex. The watermelon was juicy and delicious.

Helping Verb: a word or group of words that make up the verb phrase in a sentence. It also assists the main verb.

ex. She should have known to take her lunch with her to school.

ex. I will never be home that early from work.

  • no, not, never are not a part of the verb phrase.

Transitive and Intransitive:

All verbs are classified as transitive or intransitive.

Transitive verbs are in a sentence that has a direct object.

ex. She brought flowers to work for her friend.

Intransitive verbs are in a sentence without a direct object.

ex. He ran quickly down the road to his grandma's house.

Note: All linking verb are intransitive; direct objects are never found inside a prepositional phrase.


Active and Passive Voice:

Active: Voice of the sentence when the subject is performing the verb.

ex. The man fixed the computer.

Passive: Voice of the sentence when the predicate performs the verb or there is no performer in the sentence.

ex. The computer was fixed by the man.
ex. The computer was fixed on Friday of last week.

To Correct Passive to Active:

1. Identify performer of the verb.
2. Move performer of the verb to the beginning of the sentence.
3. If no performer is in the sentence, writer must create one and place it at the beginning of the sentence.

Subject-Verb Agreement:

4. Adjectives

5. Adverb

6. Conjunctions

7. Prepositions

8. Interjections